The most expensive thing in the galaxy

What is The Most Expensive Thing in The Galaxy?

  • 16 Psyche is mainly metal, made up of iron, nickel and precious metals
  • On Earth, the iron would be worth $10,000 quadrillion
  • NASA will launch a mission to 16 Psyche in 2022 and it will arrive in 2026
  • If brought back to Earth, it would crash the worlds economy

This asteroid was found by Annibale de Gasparis on March 17, 1852 from Naples and named after the Greek nymph Psyche. The first fifteen asteroids to be found were given symbols by astronomers as a type of short-hand notation. In 1851, however, J. F. Encke suggested using a circled number. 16 Psyche was the first new asteroid to be found that was designated with this scheme (in 1852 by J. Ferguson).

What’s crazy is, if someone were able to get a hold of this unimaginably expensive rock, it would completely crash the world’s economy.

Radar observations indicate that it is made of iron-nickel. Psyche appears to be a case of an exposed metallic core from a bigger differentiated parent body. Unlike some other M-type asteroids, Psyche shows no sign of the presence of water or water-bearing minerals on its surface, consistent with its interpretation as a metallic body. Small amounts of pyroxene appear to be present.

If Psyche is the core remnant of a bigger parent body, we might expect other asteroids on similar orbits. Psyche does not belong to any asteroid family. One theory is that the collision occurred very early in the solar system’s history, and all the other remnants have since been ground into fragments by subsequent collisions or had their orbits perturbed beyond recognition.

The world’s economy right now is made up of around $74 trillion, that’s 74 with 12 zeros, and this rock is worth around $10 quintillion, which is 1 with 31 zeros or $1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,0000

16 Psyche is over 135,000 times the value of all the money on Earth.

NASA is interested in this asteroid, and is planning to send a spacecraft to explore it. They plan on studying it as it may have been a part of the core of an earlier planet. 

Huge Cavity in Antarctic Glacier Signals Rapid Decay

A gigantic cavity – two-thirds the area of Manhattan and almost 1,000 feet (300 meters) tall – growing at the bottom of Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica is one of several disturbing discoveries reported in a new NASA-led study of the disintegrating glacier. The findings highlight the need for detailed observations of Antarctic glaciers’ undersides in calculating how fast global sea levels will rise in response to climate change.

Researchers expected to find some gaps between ice and bedrock at Thwaites’ bottom where ocean water could flow in and melt the glacier from below. The size and explosive growth rate of the newfound hole, however, surprised them. It’s big enough to have contained 14 billion tons of ice, and most of that ice melted over the last three years.

“We have suspected for years that Thwaites was not tightly attached to the bedrock beneath it,” said Eric Rignot of the University of California, Irvine, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Rignot is a co-author of the new study, which was published today in Science Advances. “Thanks to a new generation of satellites, we can finally see the detail,” he said.

The cavity was revealed by ice-penetrating radar in NASA’s Operation IceBridge, an airborne campaign beginning in 2010 that studies connections between the polar regions and the global climate. The researchers also used data from a constellation of Italian and German spaceborne synthetic aperture radars. These very high-resolution data can be processed by a technique called radar interferometry to reveal how the ground surface below has moved between images.

“[The size of] a cavity under a glacier plays an important role in melting,” said the study’s lead author, Pietro Milillo of JPL. “As more heat and water get under the glacier, it melts faster.”

Numerical models of ice sheets use a fixed shape to represent a cavity under the ice, rather than allowing the cavity to change and grow. The new discovery implies that this limitation most likely causes those models to underestimate how fast Thwaites is losing ice.

About the size of Florida, Thwaites Glacier is currently responsible for approximately 4 percent of global sea level rise. It holds enough ice to raise the world ocean a little over 2 feet (65 centimeters) and backstops neighboring glaciers that would raise sea levels an additional 8 feet (2.4 meters) if all the ice were lost.

Thwaites is one of the hardest places to reach on Earth, but it is about to become better known than ever before. The U.S. National Science Foundation and British National Environmental Research Council are mounting a five-year field project to answer the most critical questions about its processes and features. The International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration will begin its field experiments in the Southern Hemisphere summer of 2019-20.

How Scientists Measure Ice Loss

There’s no way to monitor Antarctic glaciers from ground level over the long term. Instead, scientists use satellite or airborne instrument data to observe features that change as a glacier melts, such as its flow speed and surface height.

Another changing feature is a glacier’s grounding line – the place near the edge of the continent where it lifts off its bed and starts to float on seawater. Many Antarctic glaciers extend for miles beyond their grounding lines, floating out over the open ocean.

Just as a grounded boat can float again when the weight of its cargo is removed, a glacier that loses ice weight can float over land where it used to stick. When this happens, the grounding line retreats inland. That exposes more of a glacier’s underside to sea water, increasing the likelihood its melt rate will accelerate.

An Irregular Retreat

For Thwaites, “We are discovering different mechanisms of retreat,” Millilo said. Different processes at various parts of the 100-mile-long (160-kilometer-long) front of the glacier are putting the rates of grounding-line retreat and of ice loss out of sync.

The huge cavity is under the main trunk of the glacier on its western side – the side farther from the West Antarctic Peninsula. In this region, as the tide rises and falls, the grounding line retreats and advances across a zone of about 2 to 3 miles (3 to 5 kilometers). The glacier has been coming unstuck from a ridge in the bedrock at a steady rate of about 0.4 to 0.5 miles (0.6 to 0.8 kilometers) a year since 1992. Despite this stable rate of grounding-line retreat, the melt rate on this side of the glacier is extremely high.

“On the eastern side of the glacier, the grounding-line retreat proceeds through small channels, maybe a kilometer wide, like fingers reaching beneath the glacier to melt it from below,” Milillo said. In that region, the rate of grounding-line retreat doubled from about 0.4 miles (0.6 kilometers) a year from 1992 to 2011 to 0.8 miles (1.2 kilometers) a year from 2011 to 2017. Even with this accelerating retreat, however, melt rates on this side of the glacier are lower than on the western side.

These results highlight that ice-ocean interactions are more complex than previously understood.

Milillo hopes the new results will be useful for the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration researchers as they prepare for their fieldwork. “Such data is essential for field parties to focus on areas where the action is, because the grounding line is retreating rapidly with complex spatial patterns,” he said.

“Understanding the details of how the ocean melts away this glacier is essential to project its impact on sea level rise in the coming decades,” Rignot said.

The paper by Milillo and his co-authors in the journal Science Advances is titled “Heterogeneous retreat and ice melt of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.” Co-authors were from the University of California, Irvine; the German Aerospace Center in Munich, Germany; and the University Grenoble Alpes in Grenoble, France.

Asteroid to hit Earth Feb 1st!?

There’s an asteroid that might collide with the Earth on February 1st 2019, that’s a couple days away. I don’t want to scare anybody. The shocking truth is coming out today!

There’s absolutely no truth of a NASA cover up of asteroid 2002 NT7 hitting Earth. There’s also no truth of it hitting Earth at any time in the foreseeable future. The closest it will actually come to Earth is in 2199.

You can see the orbit of the asteroid on NASA’s JPL Small Body Database Browser.

Approach of 2002 NT7
Credit: NASA

When it was first discovered, the asteroid known as 2002 NT7 had a small chance of impacting the Earth on Feb 1st 2019. When this question was first answered, in 2004, the probability of that impact was about one in 100,000 (a very low risk). Now, based on the data we currently have (as of July 2015), this asteroid will NOT collide with Earth within the foreseeable future. On January 15, 2099, it will be 0.37 AU from Earth (more than 100 times the distance to the Moon), and that is the closest that it will come until after 2199.

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/physics/38-our-solar-system/the-earth/impacts/52-are-there-any-asteroids-on-a-collision-course-with-earth-beginner

The asteroid is large though, so if it were to impact Earth, it would do considerable damage. But compared to other asteroids, it’s on the smaller size range. That being said, it could actually cause a global disaster if it hit us.

When the asteroid hits, it would cause devastating damage to the impact zone and would throw an enormous amount of dust and debris into the atmosphere which could block out the Sun for several years or decades. This is referred to as “Impact Winter”, which is similar to “Nuclear Winter” but this is caused by an asteroid and not by nukes.


Asteroid impacts on the Earth and moon have increased since the dinosaurs lived

An international team of scientists is challenging our understanding of a part of Earth’s history by looking at the Moon, the most complete and accessible chronicle of the asteroid collisions that carved our solar system.

Over the last 290 million years, asteroid collisions with Earth and the moon have increased as many as three times, according to a new study published Thursday in the journal Science. And while that sounds like a long timescale, this is a significant increase compared to the previous 700 million years.

“Our research provides evidence for a dramatic change in the rate of asteroid impacts on both Earth and the Moon that occurred around the end of the Paleozoic era,” said lead author Sara Mazrouei, who recently earned her Ph.D. in the Department of Earth Sciences in the Faculty of Arts & Science at the University of Toronto (U of T). “The implication is that since that time we have been in a period of relatively high rate of asteroid impacts that is 2.6 times higher than it was prior to 290 million years ago.”

For decades, scientists have been trying to determine the rate that asteroids impact Earth. They studied impact craters on Earth and the age of the rocks around them. But that method came with its own roadblocks. The biggest issue: The earliest impact craters were missing.

It had been previously assumed that most of Earth’s older craters produced by asteroid impacts have been erased by erosion and other geologic processes. But the new research shows otherwise.

“The relative rarity of large craters on Earth older than 290 million years and younger than 650 million years is not because we lost the craters, but because the impact rate during that time was lower than it is now,” said Rebecca Ghent, an associate professor in U of T’s Department of Earth Sciences and one of the paper’s co-authors. “We expect this to be of interest to anyone interested in the impact history of both Earth and the Moon, and the role that it might have played in the history of life on Earth.”

Scientists have for decades tried to understand the rate that asteroids hit Earth by using radiometric dating of the rocks around them to determine their ages. But because it was believed erosion caused some craters to disappear, it was difficult to find an accurate impact rate and determine whether it had changed over time.

A way to sidestep this problem is to examine the Moon, which is hit by asteroids in the same proportions over time as Earth. But there was no way to determine the ages of lunar craters until NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) started circling the Moon a decade ago and studying its surface.

“The LRO’s instruments have allowed scientists to peer back in time at the forces that shaped the Moon,” said Noah Petro, an LRO project scientist based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Using LRO data, the team was able to assemble a list of ages of all lunar craters younger than about a billion years. They did this by using data from LRO’s Diviner instrument, a radiometer that measures the heat radiating from the Moon’s surface, to monitor the rate of degradation of young craters.

During the lunar night, rocks radiate much more heat than fine-grained soil called regolith. This allows scientists to distinguish rocks from fine particles in thermal images. Ghent had previously used this information to calculate the rate at which large rocks around the Moon’s young craters—ejected onto the surface during asteroid impact—break down into soil as a result of a constant rain of tiny meteorites over tens of millions of years. By applying this idea, the team was able to calculate ages for previously un-dated lunar craters.

Enercare Announces Results of 2018 Annual General Meeting

TORONTOApril 26, 2018 /CNW/ – Enercare Inc. (“Enercare”) (TSX: ECI) announced the results from its Annual General Meeting of shareholders held earlier today.

The board of directors of Enercare was pleased to receive the support of shareholders for the election of all of management’s director nominees and the re-appointment of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP as Enercare’s external auditor for the ensuing year.

A total of 45,820,760 of Enercare’s common shares (“Shares”) (representing approximately 42.96% of the issued and outstanding Shares as of the record date for the meeting) were represented in person or by proxy at the meeting.

Enercare’s seven directors were elected at the meeting by a resolution passed by a majority of the shareholders present or represented by proxy at the meeting, to hold office until the close of the next annual meeting of shareholders. The results of the vote are detailed below[1]:

Nominee

Votes For

Votes Withheld

Number

Percent (%)

Number

Percent (%)

Jim Pantelidis

41,529,774

93.91

2,695,104

6.09

John W. Chandler

43,578,464

98.54

646,414

1.46

Lisa de Wilde

42,510,204

96.12

1,714,674

3.88

John A. Macdonald

43,422,587

98.19

802,291

1.81

Grace M. Palombo

41,843,169

94.61

2,381,709

5.39

Jerry Patava

40,411,686

91.38

3,813,192

8.62

Michael Rousseau

41,306,171

93.40

2,918,707

6.60

 

The results of the vote to re-appoint PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and authorize the directors to fix their remuneration are as follows1:

Votes For

Votes Withheld

Number

Percent (%)

Number

Percent (%)

44,515,148

97.30

1,235,612

2.70

 

___________________________

1

The numbers shown for the results of the vote do not reflect the 70,000 Shares (representing approximately 0.07% of the issued and outstanding Shares as of the record date for the meeting) represented in person at the meeting.

 

About Enercare Inc.

Enercare is headquartered in Markham, Ontario, Canada and is publicly traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX: ECI). As one of North America’s largest home and commercial services and energy solutions companies with approximately 4,700 employees under its Enercare and Service Experts brands, Enercare is a leading provider of water heaters, water treatment, furnaces, air conditioners and other HVAC rental products, plumbing services, protection plans and related services. With operations in Canada and the United States, Enercare serves approximately 1.6 million customers annually. Enercare is also the largest non-utility sub-meter provider, with electricity, water, thermal and gas metering contracts for condominium and apartment suites in Canada and through its Triacta brand, a premier designer and manufacturer of advanced sub-meters and sub-metering solutions.

For more information on Enercare visit enercare.ca.  Additional information regarding Enercare is available through our investor relations website at corporate.enercare.ca or on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.

SOURCE Enercare Inc.

RELATED LINKS
www.enercare.ca

World Peace Gardens to Launch its Next Site in Algiers

ALGIERS, AlgeriaApril 26, 2018

The latest green space to be formally designated a “World Peace Garden” will be in Algiers, the capital city of the Republic of Algeria, announced Jeffrey Gale, the founder of the World Peace Gardens Network.

Set inside Liberty Park in the city’s centreville, the garden will be a tranquil space available for use by all residents and visitors and site to contemplate and reflect on the importance of peace.

As part of the site’s designation, the garden is set to receive several additions and upgrades, including a central fountain, mosaic tiling, and plaques containing the words of renowned men and women of peace, including Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Nelson Mandela. The garden will also include a selection of quotations from local peacemakers including President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, who galvanized his countrymen into choosing peace, love, forgiveness, and inclusivity after a decade of violence that plunge the country into a dark conflict during the 1990s. The President’s organization of a civil concord and national referendum, accompanied by speeches in which he beseeched Algerians of all backgrounds and beliefs to resolve their differences through peaceful, non-violent means, is widely viewed as critical to the stability and development that Algeria has witnessed in recent years.

“The vision of the Algerian people—’one people, one dream’—is truly reflected in this beautiful site,” said Prince Frederick von Saxe-Lauenberg, founder of Children of the World, who was on hand for the planning discussions and site selection. “The garden will be a place where people can reflect, think, and then act in the interests of peace.”

The Algiers Peace Garden will adhere to the principles of permaculture to encourage the natural abilities of the plants in the garden to nurture, renew, and propagate themselves. The garden will thus include perennial plants and trees, reduce digging to a minimum, minimize the need for irrigation, and be fully free from the use of chemicals or fertilizers. In this way, the species present in the garden will reflect the principles of human peace—different varieties living and growing together to protect one another from problems they would otherwise encounter.

Sophie Christopher-Bowes is working with Yakoub Kamel, Director General of l’EDIVAL, who oversees all of the public parks in the Algerian capital, to select the trees, plants, and flowers for the garden. Jeffrey Gale will serve as the architect overseeing the design of the fountain and other renovations in the garden.

“It’s a beautiful green space and will make a wonderful addition to the World Peace Gardens Network,” said Jeffrey Gale. “We are thrilled that the network’s first expansion into Africa will be in Algiers.”

The World Peace Gardens Network, a charitable non-profit organization based in the United Kingdom, was founded by Jeffrey Gale in 2000. To date, there are nearly 80 peace gardens in the network around the world, in nearly a dozen countries, including IndiaUzbekistanPortugalIrelandCyprusFranceItalythe United States, and the United Kingdom. The site in Algiers will be the first World Peace Garden in Africa or the Middle East.

New NASA Study May Improve Future River-Observing Satellites

River floods are one of the most common and devastating of Earth’s natural disasters. In the past decade, deluges from rivers have killed thousands of people every year around the world and caused losses on the order of tens of billions of U.S. dollars annually. Climate change, which is projected to increase precipitation in certain areas of the planet, might make river floods in these places more frequent and severe in the coming decades.

Now, a new study led by researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, analyzes what it would take for river-observing satellitesto become an even more useful tool to mitigate flood damage and improve reservoir management globally in near real-time.

“Early flood warning systems traditionally depend on gauge networks that detect floods farther up the river, but gauge data are becoming more and more scarce,” said George Allen, lead author of the new research and a hydrologist at JPL. “Our study shows that there’s room for satellites to help fill in the gap. But for satellites to inform real-time flood mitigation, they have to provide data to water managers within a sufficiently short lag time.”

River floods occur when a channel fills with water beyond the capacity of its banks, normally due to heavy rainfall. The flood travels along the course of the river as a wave, moving downstream faster than the water itself. Several satellite missions have been able to detect floods as sudden changes in the height or width of river waters. Once a flood is observed, it is relatively easy to predict accurately how it will move down the river. This information is extremely useful in early flood warning systems and other real-time river management applications.

To study the speed at which floods propagate through the planet’s rivers, Allen and his colleagues ran a simple numerical model of flow waves that used information such as the width, slope, depth and roughness — the amount of friction water experiences when traveling along a river — of rivers worldwide. After analyzing wave speeds through 11 million miles (17.7 million kilometers) of rivers around the planet, the researchers found that flood waves traveling at their maximum speed take a median time of three days to reach the next downstream dam, four days to arrive to the next downstream city and six days to exit the river system entirely.

The team compared their model’s results with discharge records from more than 20,000 U.S. Geological Survey gauge stations along around 40,000 miles (64,400 kilometers) of varied river systems in the United States. They found that the model estimated faster wave speeds than the gauge data showed.

“That was expected, based on the fact that we’re modeling waves moving at maximum speeds, whereas the gauge data are looking at all types of wave speeds: low speeds, high speeds, everything in between,” Allen said. “In this way, our study estimates a worst-case-scenario of how fast floods can move down rivers.”

The scientists then used their wave speed findings to calculate data latency — how quickly satellite data should be downloaded, processed and made available to the public to be useful for flood early warning systems and other real-time flood mitigation strategies, as well as reservoir management. In particular, they focused on future data from NASA’s upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT, scheduled to launch in 2021, is specifically designed to observe rivers. That’s because it has a repeat orbit of 21 days and will be able to detect flood waves, particularly in higher-latitude large rivers. The researchers found that making SWOT data available within days after being acquired by the spacecraft could be useful for real-time flood mitigation. Compared to past or current satellites providing river and flood information, SWOT will provide never-before-seen maps of river height, allowing for more reliable prediction of flood timing and magnitude.

If the data were to be processed in two days or less, Allen’s team calculated, it would be ready for emergency managers before at least two-thirds of observed waves reached the next downstream city. For dams, the quick turnaround of satellite measurements would give advance notice to downstream reservoirs in at least half of the cases when SWOT detects a flood wave.

“There is a trade-off between data latency and data quality,” said Cédric David of JPL, who directed the new study and is a member of SWOT’s science team. “So, do we want to wait to get the best data possible, or do we want to get a rough version of what’s going on now, so we can provide actionable information? As we prepare for new satellite missions like SWOT, that’s when we start asking these types of questions.”

Satellite data that could inform flood early warning systems would be particularly useful for developing nations, where either there are insufficient river gauges or countries do not share gauge data with their downstream neighbors, Allen said.

Results of the study are published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

For more information on SWOT, visit:

https://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/

Far Northern Permafrost May Unleash Carbon Within Decades

Permafrost in the coldest northern Arctic — formerly thought to be at least temporarily shielded from global warming by its extreme environment — will thaw enough to become a permanent source of carbon to the atmosphere in this century, with the peak transition occurring in 40 to 60 years, according to a new NASA-led study.

The study calculated that as thawing continues, total carbon emissions from this region over the next 300 years or so will be 10 times as much as all human-produced fossil fuel emissions in the single year 2016.

The study, led by scientist Nicholas Parazoo of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, found that warmer, more southerly permafrost regions will not become a carbon source until the end of the 22nd century, even though they are thawing now. That is because other changing Arctic processes will counter the effect of thawing soil in these regions.

The finding that the colder region would transition sooner than the warmer one came as a surprise, according to Parazoo. “Permafrost in southern Alaska and southern Siberia is already thawing, so it’s obviously more vulnerable,” he said. “Some of the very cold, stable permafrost in the highest latitudes in Alaska and Siberia appeared to be sheltered from extreme climate change, and we didn’t expect much impact over the next couple hundred years.”

Permafrost is soil that has remained frozen for years or centuries under topsoil. It contains carbon-rich organic material, such as leaves, that froze without decaying. As rising Arctic air temperatures cause permafrost to thaw, the organic material decomposes and releases its carbon to the atmosphere in the form of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane.

Parazoo and his colleagues used data on soil temperatures in Alaska and Siberia from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, with a numerical model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado, that calculates changes in carbon emissions as plants grow and permafrost thaws in response to climate change. They assessed when the Arctic will transition to a carbon source instead of the carbon-neutral area it is today — with some processes removing about as much carbon from the atmosphere as other processes emit. They divided the Arctic into two regions of equal size, a colder northern region and a warmer, more southerly belt encircling the northern region.

There is far more permafrost in the northern region than in the southern one. Over the course of the model simulations, northern permafrost lost about five times more carbon per century than southern permafrost.

The southern region transitioned more slowly in the model simulations, Parazoo said, because plant growth increased much faster than expected in the south. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis, so increased plant growth means less carbon in the atmosphere. According to the model, as the southern Arctic grows warmer, increased photosynthesis will balance increased permafrost emissions until the late 2100s.

Results of the study are published in the journal The Cryosphere. To read the paper, visit:

https://www.the-cryosphere.net/12/123/2018/

Updated on 3/6/18 at 4:10 p.m. to clarify the total amount of Arctic carbon emitted by thawing permafrost, in paragraph 2, and adding a link to the study